问题

  • LinkedBlockingDeque 是什么?

  • 优缺点?

  • 应用场景?

  • 源码实现?

  • 个人启发?

LinkedBlockingDeque

双向并发阻塞队列。

所谓双向是指可以从队列的头和尾同时操作,并发只是线程安全的实现,阻塞允许在入队出队不满足条件时挂起线程,这里说的队列是指支持FIFO/FILO实现的链表。

  1. 要想支持阻塞功能,队列的容量一定是固定的,否则无法在入队的时候挂起线程。也就是capacity是final类型的。

  2. 既然是双向链表,每一个结点就需要前后两个引用,这样才能将所有元素串联起来,支持双向遍历。也即需要prev/next两个引用。

  3. 双向链表需要头尾同时操作,所以需要first/last两个节点,当然可以参考LinkedList那样采用一个节点的双向来完成,那样实现起来就稍微麻烦点。

  4. 既然要支持阻塞功能,就需要锁和条件变量来挂起线程。这里使用一个锁两个条件变量来完成此功能。

优缺点

优点当然是功能足够强大,同时由于采用一个独占锁,因此实现起来也比较简单。所有对队列的操作都加锁就可以完成。同时独占锁也能够很好的支持双向阻塞的特性。

凡事有利必有弊。缺点就是由于独占锁,所以不能同时进行两个操作,这样性能上就大打折扣。从性能的角度讲LinkedBlockingDeque要比LinkedQueue要低很多,比CocurrentLinkedQueue就低更多了,这在高并发情况下就比较明显了。

前面分析足够多的Queue实现后,LinkedBlockingDeque的原理和实现就不值得一提了,无非是在独占锁下对一个链表的普通操作。

序列化

有趣的是此类支持序列化,但是Node并不支持序列化,因此fist/last就不能序列化,那么如何完成序列化/反序列化过程呢?

private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
    throws java.io.IOException {
    lock.lock();
    try {
        // Write out capacity and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultWriteObject();
        // Write out all elements in the proper order.
        for (Node<E> p = first; p != null; p = p.next)
            s.writeObject(p.item);
        // Use trailing null as sentinel
        s.writeObject(null);
    } finally {
        lock.unlock();
    }
}
 
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
    throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
    s.defaultReadObject();
    count = 0;
    first = null;
    last = null;
    // Read in all elements and place in queue
    for (;;) {
        E item = (E)s.readObject();
        if (item == null)
            break;
        add(item);
    }
}

描述的是LinkedBlockingDeque序列化/反序列化的过程。序列化时将真正的元素写入输出流,最后还写入了一个null。读取的时候将所有对象列表读出来,如果读取到一个null就表示结束。这就是为什么写入的时候写入一个null的原因,因为没有将count写入流,所以就靠null来表示结束,省一个整数空间。

源码

接口

/**
 * @since 1.6
 * @author  Doug Lea
 * @param <E> the type of elements held in this collection
 */
public class LinkedBlockingDeque<E>
    extends AbstractQueue<E>
    implements BlockingDeque<E>, java.io.Serializable {

双向链表节点

/** Doubly-linked list node class */
static final class Node<E> {
    /**
     * The item, or null if this node has been removed.
     */
    E item;
    /**
     * One of:
     * - the real predecessor Node
     * - this Node, meaning the predecessor is tail
     * - null, meaning there is no predecessor
     */
    Node<E> prev;
    /**
     * One of:
     * - the real successor Node
     * - this Node, meaning the successor is head
     * - null, meaning there is no successor
     */
    Node<E> next;
    Node(E x) {
        item = x;
    }
}

基础属性

/**
 * Pointer to first node.
 * Invariant: (first == null && last == null) ||
 *            (first.prev == null && first.item != null)
 */
transient Node<E> first;
/**
 * Pointer to last node.
 * Invariant: (first == null && last == null) ||
 *            (last.next == null && last.item != null)
 */
transient Node<E> last;
/** Number of items in the deque */
private transient int count;
/** Maximum number of items in the deque */
private final int capacity;
/** Main lock guarding all access */
final ReentrantLock lock = new ReentrantLock();
/** Condition for waiting takes */
private final Condition notEmpty = lock.newCondition();
/** Condition for waiting puts */
private final Condition notFull = lock.newCondition();

构造器

    /**
     * Creates a {@code LinkedBlockingDeque} with a capacity of
     * {@link Integer#MAX_VALUE}.
     */
    public LinkedBlockingDeque() {
        this(Integer.MAX_VALUE);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a {@code LinkedBlockingDeque} with the given (fixed) capacity.
     *
     * @param capacity the capacity of this deque
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code capacity} is less than 1
     */
    public LinkedBlockingDeque(int capacity) {
        if (capacity <= 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        this.capacity = capacity;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a {@code LinkedBlockingDeque} with a capacity of
     * {@link Integer#MAX_VALUE}, initially containing the elements of
     * the given collection, added in traversal order of the
     * collection's iterator.
     *
     * @param c the collection of elements to initially contain
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection or any
     *         of its elements are null
     */
    public LinkedBlockingDeque(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        this(Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock(); // Never contended, but necessary for visibility
        try {
            for (E e : c) {
                if (e == null)
                    throw new NullPointerException();
                if (!linkLast(new Node<E>(e)))
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Deque full");
            }
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

吐槽

默认竟然构造成最大整数,真是令人费解?

初始化线程安全保证

使用了 ReentrantLock 可互斥锁,来保证线程安全性。

看的出来,如果有元素为空,会直接抛出异常。

添加元素

    /**
     * @throws IllegalStateException if this deque is full
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void addFirst(E e) {
        if (!offerFirst(e))
            throw new IllegalStateException("Deque full");
    }

    /**
     * @throws IllegalStateException if this deque is full
     * @throws NullPointerException  {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void addLast(E e) {
        if (!offerLast(e))
            throw new IllegalStateException("Deque full");
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public boolean offerFirst(E e) {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return linkFirst(node);
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public boolean offerLast(E e) {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return linkLast(node);
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws InterruptedException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void putFirst(E e) throws InterruptedException {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            while (!linkFirst(node))
                notFull.await();
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws InterruptedException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void putLast(E e) throws InterruptedException {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            while (!linkLast(node))
                notFull.await();
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws InterruptedException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public boolean offerFirst(E e, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lockInterruptibly();
        try {
            while (!linkFirst(node)) {
                if (nanos <= 0)
                    return false;
                nanos = notFull.awaitNanos(nanos);
            }
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws InterruptedException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public boolean offerLast(E e, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException {
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Node<E> node = new Node<E>(e);
        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lockInterruptibly();
        try {
            while (!linkLast(node)) {
                if (nanos <= 0)
                    return false;
                nanos = notFull.awaitNanos(nanos);
            }
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

linkFirst & linkLast

这里使用了 Condition 类来保证队列阻塞。

阻塞队列实现原理

    /**
     * Links node as first element, or returns false if full.
     */
    private boolean linkFirst(Node<E> node) {
        // assert lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
        if (count >= capacity)
            return false;
        Node<E> f = first;
        node.next = f;
        first = node;
        if (last == null)
            last = node;
        else
            f.prev = node;
        ++count;
        notEmpty.signal();
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Links node as last element, or returns false if full.
     */
    private boolean linkLast(Node<E> node) {
        // assert lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
        if (count >= capacity)
            return false;
        Node<E> l = last;
        node.prev = l;
        last = node;
        if (first == null)
            first = node;
        else
            l.next = node;
        ++count;
        notEmpty.signal();
        return true;
    }

移除元素

    /**
     * @throws NoSuchElementException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E removeFirst() {
        E x = pollFirst();
        if (x == null) throw new NoSuchElementException();
        return x;
    }

    /**
     * @throws NoSuchElementException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E removeLast() {
        E x = pollLast();
        if (x == null) throw new NoSuchElementException();
        return x;
    }

    public E pollFirst() {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return unlinkFirst();
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public E pollLast() {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return unlinkLast();
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

unlinkLast & unlinkFirst

原理和 linkFirst 是类似的,仍然使用 Condition 保证阻塞。

    /**
     * Removes and returns first element, or null if empty.
     */
    private E unlinkFirst() {
        // assert lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
        Node<E> f = first;
        if (f == null)
            return null;
        Node<E> n = f.next;
        E item = f.item;
        f.item = null;
        f.next = f; // help GC
        first = n;
        if (n == null)
            last = null;
        else
            n.prev = null;
        --count;
        notFull.signal();
        return item;
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns last element, or null if empty.
     */
    private E unlinkLast() {
        // assert lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
        Node<E> l = last;
        if (l == null)
            return null;
        Node<E> p = l.prev;
        E item = l.item;
        l.item = null;
        l.prev = l; // help GC
        last = p;
        if (p == null)
            first = null;
        else
            p.next = null;
        --count;
        notFull.signal();
        return item;
    }

    /**
     * Unlinks x.
     */
    void unlink(Node<E> x) {
        // assert lock.isHeldByCurrentThread();
        Node<E> p = x.prev;
        Node<E> n = x.next;
        if (p == null) {
            unlinkFirst();
        } else if (n == null) {
            unlinkLast();
        } else {
            p.next = n;
            n.prev = p;
            x.item = null;
            // Don't mess with x's links.  They may still be in use by
            // an iterator.
            --count;
            notFull.signal();
        }
    }

获取元素

    public E takeFirst() throws InterruptedException {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            E x;
            while ( (x = unlinkFirst()) == null)
                notEmpty.await();
            return x;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public E takeLast() throws InterruptedException {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            E x;
            while ( (x = unlinkLast()) == null)
                notEmpty.await();
            return x;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public E pollFirst(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException {
        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lockInterruptibly();
        try {
            E x;
            while ( (x = unlinkFirst()) == null) {
                if (nanos <= 0)
                    return null;
                nanos = notEmpty.awaitNanos(nanos);
            }
            return x;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public E pollLast(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException {
        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lockInterruptibly();
        try {
            E x;
            while ( (x = unlinkLast()) == null) {
                if (nanos <= 0)
                    return null;
                nanos = notEmpty.awaitNanos(nanos);
            }
            return x;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @throws NoSuchElementException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E getFirst() {
        E x = peekFirst();
        if (x == null) throw new NoSuchElementException();
        return x;
    }

    /**
     * @throws NoSuchElementException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E getLast() {
        E x = peekLast();
        if (x == null) throw new NoSuchElementException();
        return x;
    }

    public E peekFirst() {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return (first == null) ? null : first.item;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public E peekLast() {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            return (last == null) ? null : last.item;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

这些代码大同小异,都是使用 ReentrantLock 保证线程安全性。

使用 Condition 保证阻塞性。

个人启发

  1. 使用 ReentrantLock 保证线程安全性。可以说掌握这个就掌握了大部分的同步容器。

  2. 使用 Condition 保证阻塞性,掌握这个就掌握了大部分的阻塞队列容器。

  3. 所有的容器都有优缺点。比如双向队列,就有对应的并发容器。我们要学习原理,化为自己所用。

参考资料

https://blog.csdn.net/vernonzheng/article/details/8267541

https://blog.csdn.net/qq_38293564/article/details/80592429

LinkedBlockingDeque源码学习